Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children results from autoimmune destruction of cells in the pancreas, leading to an insufficient production of insulin. It is fatal unless treated by insulin. In 2007, we performed a genome-wide association study in a large pediatric group that identified a previously unknown association between T1D and a genetic variation on chromosome 16. This region contains KIAA0350, the gene product of which is predicted to be a sugar-binding protein. Subsequent follow-up studies (e.g. Concannon and colleagues, 2008) have confirmed a link between this gene and type-1 diabetes, and our group is currently participating in a resequencing study of this region. This paper was published in Nature.